Several comprehensive authentication infrastructures have been established around the world, in both the government and private sector, of varying degrees of comprehensiveness. Some are policy frameworks which seek to provide guidance to e-business implementers, while other infrastructures provide live services to help with authentication. Most of the latter today use PKI.
The frameworks mentioned below differ from vanilla commercial Certificate Authorities insofar as they seek to provide comprehensive support for transactions and for the implementation of transaction systems, usually in the specific context of a jurisdiction or industry sector.
Identity Management and Authentication Policy Frameworks
The US Government's main framework for selecting authentication technologies to match transaction requirements is its Electronic Authentication Guideline: Recommendations of NIST, Version 1.0.2
The US Personal Identity Verification (PIV) is more than a policy framework - it is a comprehensive new identity card system and suite of standards for federal government employees and contractors, driven by Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-12. The peak standard is FIPS 201. See also About PIV and HSPD-12.
"Live" authentication services -- Government
Estonia runs a comprehensive national PKI based around its smart identity card, and supporting many worlds best practice G2C applications including document lodgement and e-voting.
"Live" authentication services -- Private Sector
Identrust (formerly "Identrus") is a PKI program and shared infrastructure service for the global banking sector. The level of "full service" PKI offerings from Identrust is continuously evolving; they offer more than a policy framework.
Pan Asia Alliance is a consortium of Certification Authorities operating according to a common set of policies and procedures that specifically support online documentation for cross border trade between member jurisdictions.
CableLabs is a peak body for the Cable TV industry, which operates a PKI for embedded device certificates.