Smartcards are not strictly speaking a derivative of PKI (many would argue that smartcards pre-date PKI), but we cover them here under derivatives for two reasons. First, PKI has become prevalent as an integrated part of most modern smartcards, including banking cards, national ID, employee ID, and health & welfare. And second, the attractive features of on-chip key generation and integrated digital signing services make smartcards an increasingly important key medium in PKI.

US Government smartcard resources


Important PKI enabled smartcard schemes



Important smartcard standards


  • FIPS 201 "Personal Identity Verification (PIV) of Federal Employees and Contractors"
  • ISO 7816 "Identification cards - Integrated circuit(s) cards with contacts"